Included in the wheel alignment factor factors are 5 (five): camber, caster, Kingpin inclination/steering axis inclination, toe angle and turning radius / turning angle
Camber is the tilt of the wheel against the vertical line when viewed from the front or rear of the vehicle. If the wheels are tilted to the outside of the vehicle then the value is + (positive) and if the wheel tilts inwards in the vehicle then its value – (negative).
Benefits of positive camber angle that minimizes the possibility of axle bent, prevent wheel slip, steering so light.
Hamilton casters is the steering axis inclination/king pin steering when viewed from the side. Caster acts for straightness and steering stability as well as to get the return to straight position after the turn.
3. Steering Axis Inclination
Caster is the steering axis inclination/king pin steering when viewed from the front/rear. Caster acts for straightness and steering stability, minimizes steering effort and minimizes reverse or pulling force in one direction.
4. Toe Angle
Toe angle is the difference in distance between the front of the front wheels with the front rear wheels. If the front wheels are shorter than the front rear wheels they are called toe-in, but if the front wheels are longer than the front rear wheels they are called toe-outs.
The main function of toe is to offset the force due to the camber angle (camber thrust)
Another thing to note on checking the wheel is run-out. Run-out is the dimensional frequency of the wheel during rotation. The wheel circle is not really round. The excessive variation of the run-out radius will result in vibration in the body, which should be limited in value.
There are two run-out types: radial run-out and lateral run-out. Radial run-out is the perfection of the circle shape of the wheel. The imperfections are caused by conditions
Tires, rims and improper axle hub positions. Wheels with radial run-out when rotating, turning radius will change so that will vibrate body and steering.
Lateral run-outs are tired fluctuations in the axial direction which will result in abnormal tire wear and tire driving unstable driving. The cause of lateral run-
Out is a crooked tire sidewall, a damaged cream, and an improper axle hub position.